English
聯系我們
網站地圖
郵箱
舊版回顧



“嫦娥”奔月的“煩惱” 太空中存在的“腐蝕”問題

文章來源:金屬研究所   發布時間:2019-04-23  【字號:     】  

  浩瀚無垠的宇宙中蘊藏著許多未知的奧秘,它仿佛擁有著巨大的魔力,吸引著人類不斷探索。月球,是人類太空探險的第一步。但由于潮汐鎖定現象,月球圍繞地球的公轉周期與其自轉周期相同,導致人類在地球上始終只能觀測到月球的“正面”。因此,多年以來,人類對月球背面的了解非常有限。直到2019年1月3日,嫦娥四號探測器自主著陸月球背面的馮·卡門撞擊坑內,實現人類首次月背軟著陸,并傳回第一張月球背面的近距離影像。

  但“嫦娥”的奔月之旅其實并不輕松,甚至可謂是困難重重。其中,太空中材料的腐蝕就是令科學家們比較頭疼的問題。

  說到腐蝕,大家可能并不陌生,因為在我們生活中,它每時每刻都在發生。例如:廚房鐵鍋的生銹,碳酸飲料對牙齒的腐蝕,街道護欄的風化開裂等等。可以說,腐蝕無時無刻不在影響著我們的生活。但有人可能會問,太空既然是高真空環境、沒有水的存在,航天器應該不會像地球上那樣腐蝕吧?但令人意想不到的是,與“溫順”的地球環境相比,真實的太空對航天器的“外衣”甚至威脅更大。

  舉一個真實的例子,“和平號”空間站作為美俄國際空間站合作計劃的一部分,是蘇聯建造的第一個軌道空間站(蘇聯解體后歸俄羅斯)。據統計,它實際在軌工作的十多年時間里,共發生近2000處故障,其中70%的外體遭到腐蝕。

  那么,究竟是什么原因造成太空中航天材料的腐蝕失效呢?“嫦娥”奔月途中,到底會面臨怎樣嚴峻的考驗呢?我們首先從太空中的環境說起。

  其實,太空的真實環境遠沒有科幻電影中描述的那般美好,到處都存在著人類肉眼所看不見的宇宙輻射。它既包括宇宙大爆炸后所殘留的熱輻射,也包括其他天體向外釋放的電磁波、高能粒子甚至是宇宙射線。它們對人體的危害可以說是致命的。但由于地球磁場與大氣層對宇宙輻射的偏折和吸收作用,才能保證人類在地球上的正常生活。可是,一旦脫離兩者的保護,完全暴露在這種強輻射環境中,即便是穿著厚重的宇航服,也不能完全避免宇宙輻射對人體的傷害。當然,面對太空中如此高強度的輻射,航天器也會“深受其害”。

  其中,太陽所釋放的紫外線輻射是引起航天器腐蝕失效的原因之一。盡管紫外線只占太陽光的5%左右,但是能量卻很大。太空中,由于缺少地球磁場及大氣層的“保護屏障”,航天器表面的高分子材料在吸收紫外線后會引發聚合物的自我氧化、降解。另外,紫外線中的單個光子所具有的能量足以破壞聚合物間的化學鍵,使其斷裂、交聯,從而導致聚合物材料性能的急劇下降。因此,為了盡可能的削弱宇宙輻射對航天器的影響,人類航天任務的發射甚至會刻意避開太陽耀斑活動頻繁的時間周期。

  此外,當航天器剛剛脫離地球表面大氣層的保護,首先接觸的便是低地球軌道環境(距離地球200-700km),該區域所處的殘余大氣中,氧含量約占總組分的80%。眾所周知,氧元素是造成材料腐蝕加速的重要條件。而在太陽短波輻射的光致分解作用下,氧分子轉變為高活性的原子氧,由于處于高真空及極低的氣體總壓狀態下,氧原子與其他粒子發生碰撞的幾率很小,導致氧原子很難再次復合成分子態。當高速運行的航天器與原子氧發生劇烈的摩擦、碰撞時,航天器表面的聚合物材料會發生高溫氧化反應,使其電學、光學以及機械性能等方面發生退化,甚至會引起明顯的剝蝕效應,嚴重影響航天器的運行安全。

  在“嫦娥”的太空旅行中,除了要面臨宇宙輻射及原子氧的威脅外,還需要接受極為“苛刻”的溫度挑戰。自宇宙大爆炸起,太空中的溫度便開始逐漸降低,在經歷了150多億年的演變后,目前的太空正處于極寒的環境中,平均溫度只有約-270.3℃。并且,真空環境中,由于缺少空氣的傳熱和散熱,航天器表面受陽光直接照射的一面,其溫度將高達100℃以上,而陽光照射不到的一面,溫度則可低至-200℃。這種極端的溫度條件和大幅度的冷熱交變會影響材料的應力,并可能造成航天器“外衣”的斷裂、分層甚至脆化,縮短其安全服役壽命。

  通過上面的介紹,我們可以發現,在如此復雜的太空環境中,航天器的腐蝕根本無法避免。并且,有關數據顯示,一架航天飛機的維修成本甚至遠高于其制作成本和發射成本。因此,采用科學的手段抑制航天器在太空中的腐蝕問題勢在必行。

  首先便是選擇和發展耐熱、耐極低溫、耐熱震、抗疲勞、抗腐蝕的高性能材料,世界各國的科學家也正為此努力探索。此外,結合不同材料的用途及其實際服役環境,采用合適的表面處理技術顯得更為重要。因為性能優異的防護涂層不僅可以提高航天材料的功能性,包括耐高溫、隔熱、抗腐蝕、抗氧化、抗輻射等,同時也可以延長航天器的使用壽命,節省維修成本。然而,與地面裝備表面防護不同的是,由于有機涂層在真空環境中會出現放氣、老化脫落等一系列問題,航天材料一般不會使用有機涂層進行防腐,而主要采用的表面技術包括化學/電化學沉積、化學/電化學氧化、無機涂層以及特種薄膜制備等等。

  鎂合金,作為地球上最輕的金屬結構材料,擁有比強度高、導電性強、電磁屏蔽性好等優點,在航天領域的使用上具有先天的優勢。為了實現減重的目的,我們熟知的神州、天宮、嫦娥等系列航天器中,均大量使用鎂合金。

  以此次發射的“嫦娥四號”探測器為例,其中,探月雷達、月球車巡視器、著陸器上許多重要電子設備的箱體結構所采用的就是鎂合金,主要利用其減重、導電及優異的電磁屏蔽性能,可以有效地削弱外界電磁場對核心電路系統的干擾。但鎂合金化學性質活潑,耐蝕性差,甚至在地面存放期間便會出現嚴重的腐蝕。因此,必須采用合理的表面處理方式,在滿足其導電性及電磁屏蔽性能的基礎上,有效提高其耐腐蝕能力。

  中國科學院金屬研究所在這方面做了很多工作,科研團隊自主研發的鎂合金鍍層具有防腐、導電、電磁屏蔽等多功能性,滿足了航天器若干的使用要求,并在天宮、嫦娥等多個型號的航天器上使用。

  “嫦娥”的奔月成功只是人類探索太空的階段性勝利,宇宙中仍有無數未知的奧秘等待著人類去揭曉。在未來的探索道路中,可能會暴露出更多太空中的“腐蝕”問題。讓我們攜手并進,砥礪前行,一步一步追尋屬于我們的“太空夢”。




(責任編輯:侯茜)

附件:

專題推薦

相關新聞


© 1996 - 中國科學院 版權所有 京ICP備05002857號  京公網安備110402500047號  聯系我們

地址:北京市三里河路52號 郵編:100864

500彩票www.54p.com www.53vq.com | www.31281.com | www.139386.com | www.366389.com | www.840715.com | 039094.com | www.jg0.com | www.rq47.com | www.t69.xyz | www.7608.top | www.675892.com | www.827919.com | 102888.com | www.cp983.com | www.1ud.com | www.2384.shop | www.9077.vip | www.855008.com | 219085.com | 031128.com | www.bf.com | www.w57.cn | www.525424.com | www.692717.com | www.848519.com | 912806.com | 256264.com | 大赢家彩票平台www.902261.com | www.o86.win | www.0450.biz | www.44351.com | www.020585.com | www.108536.com | www.559093.com | 926703.com | 659934.com | www.cp0114.com | www.19an.com | www.3389.org | www.177744.com | www.552288.cc | www.997873.com | 947863.com | 551565.com | www.fc77.com | www.2309.org | www.7698.wang | www.85892.cc | www.46196.com | www.199805.com | www.586625.com | www.875044.cc | 909848.com | 306089.com | 大赢家彩票平台www.225065.com | www.sr58.com | www.85qx.com | www.7423.top | www.96573.cc | www.304153.com | www.761686.com | www.910041.com | 947085.com | 582192.com | www.cai5622.com | www.qq95.cc | www.68kk.com | www.4988.net | www.5336.xyz | www.46003.com | www.060310.com | www.153110.com | www.300282.com | www.496098.com | www.848719.com | 552411.com | 810980.com | 网易彩票www.9356n.com | www.ua32.com | www.71wc.com | www.51685.cc | www.115097.com | www.237143.com | www.235550.com | www.341483.com | www.936908.com | www.xv96.com | www.98xd.com | www.001567.com | www.793139.com | www.914971.com | www.975943.com | 59rp.com | 755848.com | 794888.com | www.ce27.com | www.90yi.com | www.5454.win | www.40993.com | www.035652.com | www.110207.com | www.257651.com | 7521.biz | 238061.com | www.cp9278.com | www.27hp.com | www.2529.pw | www.9292.bid | www.79827.com | www.338737.com | www.778555.com | www.771592.com | www.864779.com | www.zv.com | www.398283.com | www.795566.com | 00051.com | 848985.com | 566276.com | 916999.com | www.bf07.com | www.43bp.com | www.1055.com | www.15717.cc | www.024654.com | www.115968.com | www.237693.com | www.365428.com | www.347142.com | www.561404.com | www.661360.com | www.980297.com | 954764.com | 506065.com | www.59bx.com | www.4965.biz | www.32682.cc | www.113774.com | www.205681.com | www.372922.com | www.563518.com | www.673747.com | www.775383.com | www.716519.com | www.831136.com | www.ky38.com | www.309789.cc | 847253.com | 866596.com | www.cu1.cc | www.pa28.com | www.7111.cc | www.61904.com | www.322721.com | 455949.com | 892524.com | 904721.com | www.gq90.com | www.28jv.com | www.95am.cc | www.0771.space | www.203045.com | www.643288.com | www.31325v.com | 947526.com | 933603.com | www.78551.cc | www.237173.com | www.310990.com | www.437996.com | www.525802.com | www.902548.com | 291169.com | 771146.com | www.dj80.cc | www.73im.com | www.6517.pw | www.9275.xyz | www.85264.com | www.183985.com | www.460360.com | www.652460.com | 465228.com | 277817.com | 83701.com | 福彩www.16878q.com | www.hs90.com | www.05oc.com | www.97tt.com | www.8966.bid | www.849522.com | 700754.com | k49.cc | 591197.com | www.3730-29.com | 255081.com | 金彩www.983jc.com | www.ep5.com | www.zc71.com | www.19lf.com | www.0739.org | www.598839.com | www.925860.com | wg80.com | www.dj62.cc | www.006.cm | www.36865.cc | www.000276.com | www.087036.com | www.178834.com | www.401112.com | www.636788.com | www.867579.com | 273526.com | 664742.com | 658605.com | 网易彩票www.069wy.com | www.as89.com | www.17nl.cc | www.44nl.com | www.62xt.com | www.7jj.cc | www.1203.net | www.26783.cc | www.89912.cc | www.5615.cc | www.26264.cc | www.21362.cc | www.10122.com | www.46905.com | www.141013.com | www.225112.com | www.270832.com | www.316896.com | www.308802.com | www.507698.com | www.636536.com | www.733903.com | www.823441.com | 87eo.com | www.997204.com | 840016.com | 853704.com | 1193.pw | 华夏彩票www.hx1181.com | www.cp640.com | www.qu34.com | www.b33.me | www.04yt.com | www.2131.com | www.9866.la | www.39565.cc | www.155633.com | www.397554.com | www.355835.com | www.134707.com | www.083759.com | www.396551.com | www.650072.com | www.927663.com | 500万彩票www.35155j.com | www.mc.cc | www.hx76.com | www.w50.xyz | www.71ju.com | www.88230.cc | www.009791.com | www.086031.com | www.306344.com | www.702283.com | www.766929.com | 500彩票www.66653g.com | www.751417.com | www.797371.com | www.850705.com | 258880.com | www.884764.com | 694811.com | 019589.com | 利彩www.57578d.com | www.kp3.cc | www.lz88.com | www.93ig.com | www.63463.com | www.214844.com | www.227009.com | www.395581.com | www.461616.com | www.389242.com | www.676945.com | www.989496.com | www.999258.cc | 100882.com | 935091.com | 811129.com | 962804.com | 754487.com | 508026.com | 685013.com | 545566.com | www.bg13.cc | www.2211.top | www.2643.pw | www.4730.com | www.17706.com | www.181582.com | www.362085.com | www.561694.com | www.572162.com | www.660785.com | www.966716.com | www.969628.com | www.890427.com | 055707.com | 776210.com | 凤凰彩票www.77801g.com | 500彩票www.593500.com | www.cai1655.com | www.ij91.com | | www.664971.com | www.901948.com | www.877056.com | 028541.com | 959724.com | www.28981.com | www.52268.cc | www.023867.com | www.041231.com | www.87713.cc | www.95606.com | www.025631.com | www.85222.cc | www.78625.com | www.120085.com | www.149200.com | www.607673.com | www.897110.com | www.858177.com | www.894825.com | www.883825.com | www.947249.com | www.928309.com | www.926426.com | www.911446.com | www.886338.com | 715721.com | cai9997.com | 640208.com | dl94.com | www.mtc6.com | 200122.com | 926455.com | 483258.com | 乐趣彩www.lqc8.com | 572227.cc | 817375.com | mg1.cc | 586191.com | 632095.com | 207273.com | www.dj01.com | www.432336.com | www.700974.com | www.713335.com | www.734800.com | www.827625.com | www.825397.com | 聚福彩票www.50989g.com | www.04af.com | www.se24.com | 500彩票www.50052d.com | 中国福利彩票www.3478g.cc | 奔驰彩票www.781566.com | 857662.com | 302287.com | 695020.com | www.nh49.com | www.dz98.com | 大赢家彩票平台www.317787.com | www.cp3.site | 皇都彩票www.qj35.com | 340887.com | 308574.com | 323228.com | 762170.com | 16600.com | 180717.com | www.88859455.com | www.228459.com | 428418.com | 264614.com | 695287.com | 53fr.com | 359944.cc--3599.cc | 571530.com | www.3750.cm | www.1412.me | www.8052.cm | www.0538.win | www.65544.cc | www.70133.com | www.753767.com | 9456.pw | ng43.com | je69.com | www.yl57.com | 凤凰彩票网www.876879.com | 500116.cc | www.877993.com | www.587303.com | www.272983.com | www.54448.cc | www.1558.in | www.088.org | www.ev38.com | www.993324.com | www.114222.cc | 250296.com | www.419998.com | www.715602.com | www.684799.com | www.654381.com | www.917173.com | www.878544.com | www.dd.cc | www.105313.com | 972886.com | www.607468.com | 114832.com | uj06.com | 463653.com | 福彩网www.60007x.com | www.fz85.com | www.ve.com | www.ry3.cc | www.cp3325.com | 大赢家彩票平台www.297790.com | 378562.com | 358389.com | 22bm.com | 768440.com | www.062232.com | www.043156.com | www.302241.com | www.313325.com | www.607232.com | www.842018.com | www.914100.com | www.920250.com | www.850036.com | www.840883.com | www.862219.com | www.875353.com | www.896988.com | www.838153.com | 800141.com | 624337.com | 733501.com | 344428.com | 55866.com | www.960538.com | www.909260.com | www.928965.com | www.880877.cc | www.940022.com | www.800023.cc | www.804407.com | www.657874.com | www.766486.com | 00yv.com | www.007007.cc | www.104304.com | www.591868.com | www.584383.com | www.570783.com | www.531669.com | 017945.com | 759333.com | 356170.com | 228080.com | 894559.com | 233985.com | 524650.com | 304658.com | 616594.com | www.982674.com | www.848879.com | www.790033.com | www.730926.com | www.765665.com | www.679448.com | www.565166.com | www.514652.com | www.516068.com | www.659271.com | www.850265.com | www.947683.com | www.867563.com | www.844402.com | www.919021.com | www.735210.com | www.652768.com | www.766311.com | www.632508.com | www.769065.com | www.984412.com | www.865821.com | www.930410.com | www.776463.com | www.588957.cc | www.517238.com | www.361285.com | www.667272.com | www.618155.com | www.845740.com | www.944402.com | www.751779.com | www.422.in | www.4796.vip | www.3103.pw | www.66al.com | www.30qy.com | www.72879.com | www.206802.com | www.115004.com | www.86707.com | www.182638.com | www.321446.com | www.376958.com | www.632476.com | www.791888.cc | www.079047.com | 793433.com | www.297617.com | www.399489.com | 611205.com | 349759.com | 872403.com | 224033.com | www.944470.com | www.684168.com | www.362869.com | www.188271.com | www.026805.com | www.99952.cc | www.110593.com | www.22752.cc | www.a22.pw | www.84rk.com | 中国福利彩票www.34788o.com | 883739.com | www.966325.com | www.595710.com | www.233954.com | www.67835.cc | www.313189.com | 750486.com | 017637.com | 13789.cc | 6523.biz | www.788048.com | www.774534.com | www.698681.com | www.609081.com | www.512189.com | 02lc.com | 35.vip | 066061.com | www.754795.com | 84666.com | 309115.com | 663767.com | www.788981.com | www.bx20.com | 4565.biz | www.953884.com | www.835302.com | 887702.com | www.961696.com | www.801751.com | www.656276.com | www.889747.com | 036585.com | www.879544.com | www.915320.com | www.842678.com | www.990.com | 950489.com | 058953.com | 807793.com | www.tv39.com | www.ji60.com | www.am41.cc | 711937.com | 106106.cc | 935670.com | www.930508.com | www.700190.com | www.415239.com | www.252432.com | www.75397.cc | www.59168.com | www.5939.com | www.9335.online | www.00bu.com | 500彩票www.50051x.com | www.5333.vip | www.327939.com | www.85uj.com | www.21223.com | www.xl69.com | www.ex50.com | 369830.com | 876840.com | 731428.com | www.923078.com | www.041369.com | www.6919.net | www.87916.com | www.022046.com | www.94ov.com | www.405827.com | www.661205.com | www.921077.com | www.703361.com | www.932600.com | 975376.com | 386345.com | 967486.com | 535700.com | 029046.com | 132756.com | www.963159.com | www.811209.com | www.756329.com | www.827458.com | www.588416.com | www.384389.com | www.510944.com | www.157175.com | www.079055.com | www.7017.net | www.sr47.com | 591609.com | www.963727.com | www.628365.com | www.54lh.com | www.32gk.com | www.bg15.com | 913681.com | www.418979.com | 453980.com | 222261.com | www.916286.com | www.674809.com | www.581235.com | www.280188.com | www.028040.com | www.8943.loan | www.131757.com | www.144205.com | www.092071.com | www.186173.com | www.329893.com | www.749331.com | www.392685.com | www.368654.com | www.625683.com | 304902.com | www.887962.com | 创富彩票www.cf9901.com | 547906.com | 104013.com | www.56xu.cc | www.ck45.com | www.2824.biz | www.og10.com | www.by5.cc | 978743.com | 151230.com | www.978547.com | www.759203.com | www.591038.com | 685858.com | www.3388.live | www.24zz.com | www.245079.com | www.141521.com | www.151765.com | www.160611.com | www.163417.com | www.006489.com | www.6554.com | www.677866.com | www.86675.com | www.015616.com | www.09vi.com | 多宝彩票www.75538b.com | 126345.com | 959451.com | www.851511.com | www.620072.com | www.650269.com | www.706268.com | www.430889.com | www.531067.com | www.762676.com | www.51zb.com | 894851.com | www.865456.com | 907467.com | www.960647.com | www.503666.cc | www.027724.com | www.55zp.com | 222415.com | www.711687.com | www.913681.com | 111377.com | www.569805.com | 397290.com | 716202.com | 457158.com | 230901.com | 483618.com | www.967609.com | www.811056.com | www.654936.com | www.633227.com | 97001.com | www.cp7776.cc | 09pg.com | 679106.com | 374744.com | 678912.com | www.947503.com | 68彩票www.68682q.com | www.ie27.com | 945329.com | 295871.com | 06900.com | www.205152.com | www.116058.com | www.2168.bid | 480065.com | www.975135.com | www.607726.com | www.303530.com | 202756.com | 566350.cc | 964820.com | cai7474.com | 776406.com | www.35iw.com | 947690.com | www.664550.com | www.652787.com | www.793774.com | www.0726.org | www.6396.top | www.88031.com | www.18335.com | www.5481.pw | www.7844.vip | www.06604.cc | www.025626.com | www.523207.com | www.813576.com | www.922449.com | www.725659.com | 053795.com | 595235.com | www.995194.com | www.892147.com | www.700203.com | www.539024.com | www.964339.com | www.760540.com | www.659234.com | www.549522.com | www.328764.com | www.425600.com | www.206242.com | www.072938.com | www.8183.biz | www.217548.com | www.620020.com | www.434358.com | www.921488.com | www.533412.com | www.323603.com | www.180433.com | www.385315.com | www.646364.com | www.898849.com | www.977574.com | www.632004.com | www.631376.com | www.626440.com | www.781784.com | www.557026.com | www.031287.com | www.96958.cc | www.5721.net | www.273544.com | www.302052.com | www.173967.com | www.670345.com | 幸运彩票www.669537.com | www.2268.cm | www.634177.com | 444552.com | 904138.com | lc38.com | www.947607.com | www.756857.com | www.721752.com | www.985511.com | www.899238.com | www.685707.com | www.877875.com | 134141.com | www.835281.com | www.247011.com | www.1004.club | www.ee2.cc | www.917238.com | www.535264.com | 网易彩票www.093wy.com | www.112300.com | www.429266.com | www.466405.com | www.358151.com | www.578863.com | www.720800.com | 017964.com | www.932195.com | www.706612.com | www.563950.com | www.465960.com | www.263190.com | www.656866.com | www.667233.com | www.331528.com | www.94107.com | www.98cw.com | www.zp87.com | 833183.com | www.948159.com | www.511336.com | www.186572.com | www.186009.com | www.215123.com | www.097932.com | www.6539.cm | www.i60.bid | E彩堂www.9818m.cc | 027322.com | 274652.com | 000489.com | www.906884.com | 6361.biz | www.z55.com | www.3642.vip | www.47tz.com | www.cai5959.com | 070164.com | 636516.com | www.88172.com | www.068855.com | www.144446.com | www.233999.cc | www.067735.com | www.040799.com | www.282803.com | www.405105.com | www.780018.cc | www.994602.com | www.783007.com | www.594025.com | www.370411.com | www.366311.com | www.342786.com | www.200286.com | www.084618.com | www.020470.com | www.80577.com | www.525539.com | www.342258.com | www.224130.com | www.111754.com | www.337195.com | cai7892.com | 388990.com | www.828282.cc | www.946789.com | www.717118.com | 103234.com | www.cp9112.com | www.51bv.com | www.65vy.com | www.019134.com | www.m18.tv | www.894205.com | www.su51.com | cai8528.com | www.811504.com | 494724.com | 037620.com | 网易彩票www.26163g.com | 791794.com | 577672.com | www.949605.com | www.700071.cc | www.698946.com | www.580477.com | www.183516.com | www.224469.com | www.4168.la | www.fg1.com | 397941.com | www.825916.com | www.516992.com | www.067840.com | www.646939.com | www.560830.com | www.535965.com | www.356075.com | www.778645.com | www.587129.com | www.442110.com | www.291652.com | www.092530.com | www.027625.com | www.81786.com | www.375938.com | www.658964.com | www.751699.com | www.245559.com | www.5052.live | www.645778.com | www.cp7178.com | 085709.com | 576101.com | 58587.cc | www.62568.com | www.635385.com | 241608.com | www.622011.com | www.365224.cc | 582576.com | www.992135.com | www.784022.com | www.604622.com | www.713320.com | 500彩票www.931786.com | 739647.com | www.dy66.cc | 购彩在线www.66332l.com | 316802.com | 506367.com--m1253.com | 284114.com | 7088.biz | www.53ea.com | www.7368.vip | www.754.bid | www.98509.com | www.039395.com | www.8856.hk | www.35007.com | www.68zx.com | www.99965.com | www.186572.com | www.276551.com | www.283479.com | www.057308.com | www.932375.com | 969240.com | www.966792.com | www.839123.com | www.975343.com | www.916299.com | www.798471.com | www.349458.com | www.002206.com | www.7509.pw | www.cp7891.com | 05678.com | www.966259.com | 004548.com | www.760180.com | www.478469.com | www.160893.com | www.198969.com | www.057698.com | www.0520.cn | www.058388.com | www.033997.com | www.754.pw | www.72ij.com | 彩票5www.594883.com | www.44qn.com | www.iy14.com | 873970.com | www.of85.com | www.69vq.com | www.013807.com | www.fc62.com | www.63eo.com | 972364.com | www.736785.com | www.044112.com | www.fi36.com | 1171.cc | 7456.pw | 143434.com | 391050.com | 143197.com | www.891639.com | www.574555.com | www.569390.com | www.317056.com | www.256851.com | www.052256.com | www.106521.com | www.012866.com | www.pi48.com | 169074.com | 918690.com | www.9026.top | www.zs89.com | 983143.com | www.790237.com | www.872012.com | www.645150.com | www.394400.com | www.663305.com | www.829633.com | www.978458.com | www.728549.com | www.551979.com | www.275394.com | www.242624.com | www.625944.com | www.456760.com | www.7511.cn | 761834.com | www.20874.com | www.25sk.com | 948047.com | www.696007.com | www.273922.cc | www.151314.cc | www.44043.com | www.71112.com | www.17702.cc | www.7ev.com | 747492.com | k11.net--k11.net | 224528.cc | 129804.com | www.904880.com | 3055.biz | www.353926.com | www.54108.com | www.fd80.com | www.895080.com | www.253295.com | www.976493.com | www.751909.com | www.619404.com | www.968484.com | 688394.com | www.530633.com | www.8508.org | www.309038.com | www.372296.com | www.210362.com | www.428387.com | www.676152.com | www.665547.com | www.771332.com | www.476002.com | www.119362.com | www.088969.com | www.45093.com | www.91yw.com | www.cp8779.com | 107099.com | 904648.com | www.998171.com | www.713152.com | www.441342.com | www.140191.com | www.622007.com | www.947733.com | www.229544.com | www.083758.com | www.cai1244.com | www.776832.com | www.059013.com | www.939.gg | 193906.com | www.427120.com | 586705.com | 747490.com | 202985.com | www.759295.com | www.419448.com | www.068227.com | www.94446.cc | www.4853.com | www.ek83.com | 122551.com | www.964638.com | www.580359.com | www.263078.com | www.066072.com | www.70916.com | www.0473.org | www.cai9090.com | 654809.com | www.809833.com | www.913073.com | www.638153.com | www.807149.com | www.652957.com | www.426226.com | www.518357.com | www.160921.com | www.175352.com | www.123153.com | www.11222.cc | www.sh32.cc | 463069.com | www.959490.com | www.618915.com | www.488418.com | www.145558.com | www.280037.com | www.94440.cc | www.0975.vip | 5670.pw | www.910034.com | www.562312.com | www.311011.com | www.213575.com | www.77558.com | www.40ql.com | 973831.cc--7798.com | www.ky38.com | 975541.com | 365174.cc | www.791441.com | www.779518.com | www.505726.com | www.365129.cc | www.119362.com | www.103640.com | www.17678.cc | www.j22.org | 793002.com | 656493.com | www.770486.com | 192167.com | www.698783.com | www.236200.cc | www.7781.cm | 凤凰彩票www.88266b.com | www.947807.com | www.373363.com | www.443998.com | www.179757.com | www.4895.top | 361956.com | www.869350.com | www.a48.top | www.881041.com | 554398.com | www.939621.com | www.844893.com | www.779795.com | www.577026.com | www.258192.com | www.87821.cc | www.39jp.com | 620593.com | 47658.com | www.916544.cc | www.538898.com | www.169779.com | www.94237.com | www.6664.top | www.cp3928.com | 870714.com | 409623.com | 816361.com | www.763333.com | www.561120.com | www.275377.com | www.72267.com | www.78qg.com | 835065.com | 15cr.com | www.623938.com | www.666038.com | www.866515.com | www.639254.com | www.541744.com | www.355724.com | www.058919.com | www.091.biz | www.ss85.com | 507678.com | www.878927.cc | www.597056.com | www.207111.cc | www.066907.com | www.4104.me | 彩69www.215463.com | 202774.com | www.717955.com | www.288678.com | www.75536.com | www.66zd.com | 432733.com | 886202.com | www.750424.com | www.346150.com | www.122924.com | www.02983.com | www.zc20.cc | www.cai1444.com | 331546.com | www.788012.com | www.389148.com | www.124958.com | www.3688.date | 网易彩票www.07163j.com | 50855.com | www.692532.com | www.248137.com | www.35716.com | www.2439.me | 中国福利彩票www.08588u.com | 967645.com | www.826713.com | www.387638.com | www.256519.com | www.53629.cc | www.974.in | www.yf42.com | 080950.com | www.781870.com | www.455940.com | www.147857.com | www.61488.cc | www.050.date | www.5sk.com | 545532.com | 990333.cc | www.578331.com | www.265772.com | www.4363.biz | www.my16.com | 36541.com | www.960476.com | www.549206.com | www.189401.com | www.81827.cc | www.2679.cc | www.cp6811.com | 712702.com | www.990852.com | www.609567.cc | www.141006.com | www.44416.com | www.ye35.com | 454230.com | www.825195.com | www.404544.com | www.192512.com | www.17836.cc | www.ou64.com | 930995.com | www.814589.com | www.416787.com | www.034952.com | www.57uw.com | 230265.com | www.961040.com | www.606672.com | www.183703.com | www.40326.com | www.88948.com | www.y37.vip | 948726.com | www.828410.com | www.425021.com | www.030073.com | www.84gj.com | 天天彩票www.7782s.com | www.992281.com | www.692665.com | www.265875.com | www.144062.com | www.92202.com | www.2556.biz | www.228260.com | www.926108.com | www.509808.com | www.119389.com | www.02990.com | www.11vg.com | 924433.com | www.990590.com | www.568939.com | www.537718.com | www.153514.com | www.103840.com | www.6139.biz | www.04ut.com | www.130.live | www.7367.loan | 13e彩票www.703035.com | 561063.com | www.937903.com | www.477476.com | www.033229.com | www.87632.cc | www.cai7411.com | www.988842.com | www.534913.com | www.081016.com | www.4930.xyz | 686449.com | www.859816.com | www.755729.com | www.276736.com | www.86013.com | www.0029.pw | 彩61www.092603.com | www.928987.com | www.456329.com | www.034919.com | www.8gz.com | 439999.cc | 网易彩票www.065wy.com | www.951647.com | www.387081.com | www.063777.com | www.42hl.com | 102062.com | www.688241.com | www.223322.cc | www.14503.com | 彩61www.055890.com | www.960514.com | www.456732.com | www.345027.com | www.1936.org | 192526.com | 977539.com | www.582071.com | www.119114.com | www.62077.cc | www.29ov.com | 533035.com | www.676904.com | www.250624.com | www.4545.pw | 080348.com | www.798704.com | www.342323.com | www.137930.com | www.6828.com | 196038.com | www.871103.com | www.769836.com | www.308806.com | www.32382.com | www.ib76.com | 957684.com | www.756678.com | www.668315.com | www.233238.com | www.7904.com | 凤凰彩票www.77802f.com | 022720.com | www.716292.com | www.669311.com | www.175293.com | www.51755.cc | www.47wu.com | 733823.com | www.762490.com | 816392.com | www.712167.com | www.259584.com | www.06727.com | www.vr.cc | www.949018.com | www.553110.com | www.96401.cc | www.49529.com | www.116212.com | www.907.live | 彩票A8www.56718.com | www.917252.com | www.420185.com | www.023623.com | www.42kq.com | 256345.com | www.753049.com | www.248342.com | www.3861.net | jh20.com | www.850165.com | www.547708.com | www.086985.com | www.84go.com | 亚投彩票www.ya390.com | www.949251.com | www.481755.com | www.033385.com | www.04854.com | www.jp52.com | 冠赢彩票www.035989.com | www.959577.com | www.468776.com | www.007924.com | www.63ax.com | 948458.com | www.785523.com | www.365658.cc | www.93237.com | www.2258.in | 天天彩票www.106367.com | 436098.com | www.873941.com | www.500123.cc | www.020094.com | www.10dj.cc | 844018.com | www.700132.com | www.337978.com | www.216396.com | www.4326.in | 258203.com | www.903823.com | www.582737.com | www.433355.com | www.46085.com | www.73sa.com | www.k43439.com | www.509971.com | www.97266.cc | www.04gj.com | 873273.com | www.618535.com | www.260238.com | www.xo65.com | www.604546.com | www.215227.com | 906793.com | www.236686.com | www.wk91.com | www.801886.com | www.685051.com | www.197031.com | www.4361.in | 309066.com | www.861739.com | www.604666.com | www.954477.com | www.537244.com | www.135527.com | www.9180.cc | www.8811.link | www.55kz.com | www.ua62.com | 246862.com | www.593516.com | www.541066.com | www.97787.cc | www.qy73.com | 4684.com--www516444.com | www.558525.com | www.95906.cc | www.xf60.com | 974546.com | www.689001.com | www.531236.com | www.018491.com | www.71ej.com | 999974.com | www.591127.com | www.097473.com | 036965.com | www.984081.com | www.448884.com | www.000058.cc | www.51fl.com | 778108.com | www.868571.com | www.668658.com | www.258672.com | www.912653.com | www.506035.com | www.71470.com | www.050.cx | 037795.com | www.817323.com | www.292611.com | www.362022.com | www.095326.com | www.57948.com | www.990279.com | www.435813.com | www.45704.com | 好彩头彩票www.23579d.com | www.801355.com | www.608595.com | www.108777.com | www.006948.com | www.j73.cn | 086286.com | www.874275.com | www.358871.com | www.245471.com | www.49941.com | www.46rm.com | 76is.com | www.726177.com | www.377221.com | www.095400.com | www.3284.me | 976984.com | 4127.biz | www.484296.com | www.38827.com | 网购彩票www.cp7777p.com | www.808520.com | www.217860.com | www.d00.in | www.975626.com | www.447655.com | www.8816.me | 821751.com | 806602.com | www.520096.com | www.7951.pw | 323483.com | www.654517.com | www.300355.com | www.352.cm | 七星彩票www.3qxc.com | www.717554.com | www.047926.com | www.059562.com | www.7vx.com | 489306.com | www.926180.com | www.358130.com | www.86208.com | 彩客网www.965900.com | 157333.com--157333.com | www.582655.com | www.579143.com | www.097025.com | www.5948.cm | 825100.com | www.870741.com | www.563917.com | www.52906.com | www.189230.com | www.104102.com | www.85hw.com | www.dq35.com | www.995151.com | www.478999.cc | www.188643.com | www.8751.biz | 023111.cc | www.875911.com | www.820065.com | www.243501.com | www.1476.org | 882747.com | www.770806.com | www.188883.com | www.39177.cc | www.93jo.com | www.aa89.cc | www.49492.com | www.502829.com | www.025678.com | www.863.space | www.sb5208.com | www.818329.com | www.315379.com | www.15736.cc | www.0172.cn | 121703.com | www.851365.com | www.639040.com | www.246789.com | www.2340.tv | www.ua74.com | www.878997.cc | www.544832.com | www.079997.com | www.54mz.com | 966202.com | www.678513.com | www.150557.com | www.08288.com | 好彩头彩票www.23579c.com | www.815565.com | www.590215.com | www.77083.com | 361彩票www.361944.com | 467993.com | www.733719.com | www.636698.com | www.191372.com | www.7880.cc | 790757.com | www.695252.com | www.512374.com | www.47269.cc | www.xt23.com | www.962141.com | www.369852.com | www.231570.com | www.050087.com | www.rl74.com | 025541.com | 易彩网www.99638b.com | www.876265.com | www.508229.com | www.69432.com | www.ta67.com | 043939.com | www.618429.com | www.155481.com | www.845949.com | www.697092.com | www.362347.com | www.112079.com | www.55ss.cc | 478014.com | www.661143.com | www.328770.com | www.7726.loan | www.746.me | www.00661.com | 500彩票www.934177.com | 188197.com | www.837977.com | www.581301.com | www.531678.com | www.395881.com | www.89735.com | www.il30.com | 43835.com | www.467475.com | www.008423.com | 金利彩票www.778948.com | www.904495.com | www.293796.com | www.lc14.com | www.983415.com | www.385230.com | www.055211.com | www.3963.net | 易彩网www.12455r.com | www.813073.com | www.205105.com | www.081745.com | www.nd28.com | www.970731.com | www.329692.com | www.04792.com | 530890.com | www.794764.com | www.153453.com | www.0033.cm | 977997.com | www.776916.com | www.467599.com | www.ds3.cc | www.619021.com | www.043424.com | 979290.com | www.599165.com | www.og22.com | 489438.com | www.033042.com | 顶级娱乐www.032288.com | www.632096.com | www.7337.org | www.241068.com | www.669517.com | www.84988.com | 555046.com | www.071533.com | www.39sp.com | www.512929.com | 527625.com | www.582921.com | www.4876.biz | www.917723.com | www.148683.com | www.255752.com | 191477.com | www.277089.com | www.i30.xyz | www.626058.com | www.pm47.com | www.737186.com | www.66079.cc | 728157.com | www.625925.com | www.256445.com | www.tb9.com | www.855545.com | www.353581.com | 亚投彩票www.ya130.com | www.263783.com | www.yy70.com | www.604442.com | www.174111.cc | www.95pq.com | 99097.com | www.039982.com | www.vl83.com | www.887380.com | www.307002.com | www.nd64.com | 365325.cc | www.365280.cc | www.47ch.com | www.502965.com | www.15aj.com | www.900041.com | www.996726.com | www.406248.com | www.025426.com | www.in51.com | www.984741.com | www.345904.com | www.7587.com | 乐彩网www.3416v.com | www.850335.com | www.291077.com | www.3477.cn | 500万彩票www.96386p.com | www.830015.com | www.733374.com | www.445849.com | www.117400.com | www.415.biz | 610671.com | www.670578.com | www.098744.com | www.11351.com | www.we61.com | 027956.com | www.563023.com | www.66759.com | www.kh08.com | 142053.com | www.569815.com | www.047602.com | www.21rq.com | 721048.com | www.786116.com | www.787707.com | www.159138.com | www.19tp.com | 4678.cc | www.714188.com | www.160791.com | www.751.red | 大赢家彩票平台www.826552.com | www.901270.com | www.655976.com | www.109210.com | www.d57.com | www.871990.com | www.286688.com | www.5534.vip | 610396.com | www.732701.com | www.038210.com | www.ep09.com | www.881450.com | www.355176.com | www.vf01.com | www.367031.com | www.nx46.com | www.656969.com | www.051112.com | www.973400.com | www.162883.com | www.dg35.com | www.802609.com | www.5084.org | www.679837.com | www.10628.com | 105828.com | www.385311.com | www.3324.cc | 499292.com | www.020587.com | www.860210.com | www.586129.com | www.018800.com | www.iy25.com | 139881.com | www.444068.com | www.oo93.com | www.616456.com | www.019768.com | www.2552.top | www.946692.com | www.1664.org | www.714815.com | www.41587.com | 682894.com | www.83893.com | www.63cn.com | 461088.com | www.387362.com | www.44545.cc | 424599.com | www.666316.com | www.077723.com | www.cp9662.com | www.832201.com | www.279797.cc | www.025478.com | www.es44.com | 3974.biz | www.468015.com | www.086848.com | www.pb86.com | www.978042.com | www.326626.com | www.7517.cc | www.rh07.com | www.196781.com | www.782225.com | www.643891.com | www.234388.com | www.72qh.com | 739432.com | www.557133.com | www.89922.cc | 88彩票www.8839m.com | www.783216.cc | www.512108.com | www.29692.com | www.55nw.com | www.960812.com | www.362024.com | www.15080.com | 277582.com | www.814551.com | www.189746.com | www.32cu.com | 524353.com | www.875304.com | www.632892.com | www.237627.com | www.566741.com | www.91796.com | 彩票5www.550415.com | www.886326.com | www.370600.com | www.60501.com | www.sl40.com | www.987864.com | www.345055.com | www.9451.top | www.14xy.com | www.997907.com | www.661787.com | www.515090.com | www.076109.com | 802833.com | www.589462.com | www.52735.cc | 931575.com | www.746262.com | www.333478.com | www.0521.com | 668692.com | www.665973.com | www.078933.com | www.ti1.cc | www.853147.com | www.348544.com | www.596053.com | www.41594.com | 119693.com | www.683133.com | www.053232.com | 大赢家彩票平台www.815055.com | www.803750.com | www.176357.com | www.21ss.cc | www.978439.com | www.333190.com | www.307.pw | 双彩网www.639012.com | www.783702.com | www.690260.com | www.301578.com | www.1047.com | 财神网www.29277g.com | www.768243.com | www.134031.com | www.487.in | 99彩票www.062166.com | www.863528.com | www.757770.com | www.128086.com | www.064936.com | www.7330.xyz | 42014.com | www.571795.com | www.91782.com | www.jg20.com | www.841647.com | www.189288.com | www.30846.com | 072014.com | www.687159.com | www.855444.com | www.416965.com | www.038558.com | 365828.com | www.656749.com | www.699173.com | www.050059.com | www.cp22.cc | www.806771.com | www.630304.com | www.150291.com | www.4711.in | 809332.com | www.672930.com | www.169168.com | www.1005.top | 296705.com | www.785543.com | www.504649.com | www.65590.cc | www.72rg.com | www.959890.com | www.167266.com | www.69687.com | www.iw42.com | www.949964.com | www.227783.com | www.b61.in | www.994258.com | www.297383.com | www.41lk.com | www.957795.com | www.221416.com | www.03jx.com | www.918784.com | www.170182.com | www.8388.link | 761574.com | www.435359.com | www.4567.cn | 247776.com | www.331367.com | www.cp9329.com | www.800650.com | www.166340.com | www.83938.cc | www.13ra.com | www.920431.com | www.159739.com | www.13pg.com | 366448.com | www.360965.com | www.7561.top | 666907.com | www.333451.com | www.176.red | www.071356.com | www.c5.cx | www.813073.com | www.139454.com | www.l62.net | www.973143.com | www.233899.cc | www.83xl.com | pw5.cc | www.391038.com | www.5092.biz | 948657.com | www.689130.com | www.252575.com | www.0ft.com | www.111984.com | www.09ym.com | www.917907.com | www.168544.com | www.r79.xyz | www.860440.com | www.258071.com | www.64nm.com | 662718.com | www.599871.com | www.129018.com | www.318182.com | www.36647.com | 837546.com | www.627168.com | www.90096.com | www.gn93.com | www.954579.com | www.129379.com | www.5065.vip | www.h82.org | 449773.com | www.377441.cc | www.98672.com | 313871.com | www.f73.club | www.815522.com | www.020436.com | 284711.com | www.583884.com | www.188070.com | www.qb75.com | www.824667.com | www.022265.com | 269353.com | www.530572.com | www.6855.cn | www.bk80.com | www.720398.com | www.66313.com | www.994869.com | www.557555.com | www.4627.xyz | 137941.com | www.366214.com | www.1024.la | 083057.com | www.264073.com | www.om44.com | 459296.com | www.383530.com | www.0709.cm | 989839.com | www.591485.com | www.57958.com | 970439.com | www.654559.com | www.89908.com | 750062.com | www.473666.cc | www.4526.biz | 948419.com | www.556792.com | www.4093.cm | www.cp0660.com | www.784876.com | www.89069.com | 352385.com | www.616795.com | www.078787.com | 210362.com | www.571943.com | www.4404.net | www.976608.com | www.144383.com | www.41hi.com | 顶尖彩票www.135169.com | www.634722.com | www.148257.com | 凤凰彩票www.77802e.com | www.575119.com | www.19631.cc | 981435.com | www.548854.com | www.267285.com | www.rw11.com | www.820438.com | www.002347.com | 926333.com | www.818239.com | www.554405.com | www.69119.cc | 341499.com | www.368212.com | www.9267.xyz | www.949982.com | www.427796.com | www.026540.com | www.36066.cc | www.nv30.com | www.914920.com | www.175152.com | www.46fu.com | 110180.com | www.345149.com | www.128653.com | www.z80.org | 139050.com | www.498924.com | www.9034.com | 80823.cc | www.527391.com | www.037500.com | 爱米彩www.am7588.com | www.544300.com | www.22243.cc | 779810.com | www.425377.com | www.43052.com | 957302.com | www.250064.com | www.cai3908.com | www.589688.com | www.3704.net | 中华彩票www.9149n.com | 035003.com | www.303552.com | www.je69.com | www.868161.com | www.039905.com | www.463268.com | www.488685.com | www.54ci.com | www.693921.com | www.qi57.com | www.753020.com | www.39379.cc | 318686.cc | www.250084.com | www.020274.com | 华人彩票www.040431.com | www.658501.com | www.646618.com | www.181137.com | www.02co.com | www.qj0.cc | www.812365.com | www.123441.com | www.a44.pw | 213541.com | www.544754.com | www.8576.xyz | www.cai018.com | www.974100.com | www.421449.com | www.8376.vip | www.997871.com | www.572792.com | www.207678.cc | www.4381.com | www.926225.com | www.399028.com | www.2456.com | www.794722.com | www.og96.com | www.306407.com | 020396.com | www.7707.com | www.618845.com | www.wp26.com | www.858755.com | www.255089.com | www.61qd.com | 246245.com | www.455955.com | www.18tc.com | www.780928.com | www.71100.com | www.dv66668.com | www.981194.com | www.131687.com | 500彩票网www.819770.com | www.682554.com | www.13788.com | 486941.com | www.526249.com | www.013722.com | 526676.com | www.519256.com | www.25aw.com | www.842005.com | www.352696.com | www.ut61.com | www.705090.com | www.8366.cm | www.987725.com | www.119026.com | 037452.com | www.470158.com | www.04gf.com | www.738678.com | www.8866.site | www.967147.com | www.086053.com | 919921.com | www.529308.com | www.64ct.com | www.773530.com | www.116024.com | 854689.com | www.490811.com | www.84qg.com | www.781294.com | www.52315.com | 191969.com | www.315504.com | www.du24.com | www.730653.com | www.9614.org | www.982588.com | www.070212.com | www.jm44.com | www.847504.com | www.232218.com | www.bh15.com | www.865901.com | www.222726.com | www.nc35.com | www.891208.com | www.123898.com | www.qk13.com | www.70is.com | www.778437.com | www.090886.com | www.39ui.com | www.900059.cc | www.251169.com | www.42wp.com | www.947725.com | www.159082.com | www.11rs.com | www.873422.com | www.141369.com | www.u27.club | www.879472.com | www.279116.com | www.k96.com | www.836797.com | www.247811.com | www.5816.me | 3426.com | www.263292.com | www.e21.com | 133957.com | www.574979.com | www.10909.com | 057582.com | www.398573.com | www.32785.com | 31883.com | www.521636.com | www.5675.cn | 633199.com | www.350840.com | www.47qa.com | www.866923.com | www.572257.com | www.21090.com | 470178.com | www.591626.com | www.65009.com | 79906.com | www.582535.com | www.049907.com | www.uq27.com | www.889780.com | www.166010.com | www.62hn.com | 174866.com | www.565661.com | www.87628.cc | 55彩票www.755690.com | www.875042.com | www.248242.com | www.15mq.com | www.878992.cc | www.271966.com | www.12hk.com | 802697.com | www.365641.cc | www.783.cm | 8343.biz | www.587871.com | www.16014.com | 111508.com | www.477099.com | www.013415.com | JJ彩票www.61040.cc | www.678955.cc | www.457883.com | www.3614.biz | www.986720.com | www.256511.com | www.xh34.com | www.974738.com | www.189390.com | www.sq05.com | www.867982.com | www.331399.com | www.49ol.cc | 181877.com | www.352621.com | www.71rp.com | www.962208.com | www.254525.com | www.8ch.cc | www.987376.com | www.347905.com | www.56uu.com | si52.com | www.299573.com | www.435.com | 190863.com | www.327307.com | www.56cl.com | www.950185.com | www.216280.com | www.sd69.com | www.844567.com | www.307511.com | www.15vc.com | 实亿国际www.sygj5.com | 085165.com | www.375500.com | www.36099.com | 646242.com | www.258137.com | www.eh43.com | www.763811.com | www.91132.cc | 111507.com | www.314426.com | 网易彩票www.26163w.com | www.631598.com | www.83128.cc | 886274.com | www.298802.com | www.bz86.com | www.711210.com | www.20230.com | 432236.com | www.1